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Psychological motives of kazakhstani youth for migration to developed countries in the modern world

Автор: asylkhanovnamd01 423

Population migration is a complex social process, diverse in forms and consequences. At the same time, having a huge impact on social development, it falls under the influence of political, socio-economic, demographic and other transformations [1]. Today young people are increasingly leaving their homeland in search of a better life somewhere far abroad, but what do they really mean by "better life" remains an urgent issue that interests us. Globalization in the form of free trade and open borders for people, money and ideas is one of the most important issues that have affected our world in recent decades. In terms of migration motives one can differentiate three types of migrants: those seeking economic opportunity in the destination economy; migrants who aim to accumulate savings or human capital while abroad in order to have increased economic opportunities upon their return; and migrants who move because of political, ethnic or religious oppression in their home country [2].  According to the most recent estimates provided by the United Nations Organization, there are 232 million international migrants in the world (3.2% of the total population worldwide), a number that has progressively increased compared to 1990 (154 million) and 2000 (175 million). Of these, 58.6% were resident in developed countries, while the remaining 96 million (41.4%) came from developing countries. About two thirds of the entire international migrant population is concentrated in Europe and Asia. In 2013, 72 million international migrants lived in Europe (31.0%), and 71 million lived in Asia (30.6%) [6].  The migration of people from one country or continent to another has had a huge impact on the flow of ideas, creativity, economic growth, trade and investment. The migration surge of youth from Central Asian countries began at the end of the 20th century, when citizens saw security and better living and educational conditions in the developed countries of Asia, Europe and America. It should be noted that each person pursues his own goals and motives for migration abroad, however, the most common reason is education and employment. For instance, Raghuram determines student migration as a key element of knowledge migration, arguing that student migrants are also involved in labor and family migration, and it raises the question of what distinguishes student migrants [5].

If you look at these motives from a psychological point of view, this primarily indicates the basic human needs - safety and satisfaction of physiological needs. A person who doubts about tomorrow, worries about his life and his loved ones, sees great prospects in countries with developed infrastructure, economies and high employment rates. The hierarchical system of education in primary and secondary schools in the post-Soviet countries influenced the desire of young people to participate in a new circular education system that promotes equality between teacher and student, which is more common in developed countries of Europe, Asia and America. Moreover, Perkins and Neumayer 2014 highlight that despite significant contextual differences across countries, the determinants of international students outflows and inflows are similar [4].  At the same time, variations do exist between “developed” and “developing” countries. In particular, while domestic university quality does not have a statistically significant effect on the numbers of outgoing students for developed countries, it is positively correlated with student outflows for developing countries [3]. However, the understanding of life in the arriving country is also of interest, including the process of acculturation. Acculturation is a multidimensional process that involves changes in many aspects of immigrants’ lives, including language, cultural identity, attitudes and values, types of food and music preferred, media use, ethnic pride, ethnic social relations, cultural familiarity and social customs.
The methods of research include: survey of Almaty school graduates about plans for migration, a survey among students currently studying in Europe (Italy, Germany, England) and Asia (Korea, Malaysia, Hong Kong); interviews with graduates of foreign universities who have decided to stay and are employed; statistical analysis of the data of students applying to the agency for foreign education.


Багаутдинова Н.Г., Фахрутдинова Е.В. Миграционные процессы: тренды, вызовы, перспективы // Казань: Отечество, сборник материалов международной научно-практической конференции. 2014, p 376.
Bauer T K., Haisken-DeNew J., Christoph M., International Labor Migration, Economic Growth and Labor Markets - the Current State of Affairs. RWI Discussion.  2004.
Hugo G. International Migration in Asia’s Demographic Transition // East Asia Forum.  2013, Vol. 5, No. 1.
Perkins R.,  Neumayer E. Geographies of Educational Mobilities: Exploring Unevenness, Difference and Changes in International Student Flows // Geographical Journal. 2014,  180.3. pp 246–259.
Raghuram P. Theorising the Spaces of Student Migration // Population, Space and Place. 2013, 19.2 pp 138–154.
The Number of International Migrants Worldwide Reaches 232 Million. Population Facts IN. 2013.

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